Amethyst offers consulting and collaborative services to assist in your semiconductor materials research, development and processing needs. Our staff of nationally recognized experts in analysis techniques and materials growth is available to help you develop differentiated technology or take your technology to its next level of success. Amethyst Research provides a suite of materials and thin film analysis.
Ion Beam Accelerator
A suite of particle accelerator-based techniques is available for material characterization of composition and impurities over an extended range in Z. The techniques can also be applied to material comprised of a single crystal to determine the lattice location of defects and impurities within the crystal. The list of techniques includes Rutherford backscattering spectrometry (RBS), nuclear reaction analysis (NRA), elastic recoil detection analysis (ERDA) and particle-induced X-ray emission (PIXE) for compositional analysis; and ion channeling for determining the lattice location of structural and compositional defects in single crystals. The techniques are provided using either a broad beam (diameter of ~1 mm) or a focused beam (dia. ~ 1 µm). The focused ion beam can be raster-scanned to provide lateral maps of defects or impurities.
Instruments: 2.5 MV Van de Graaff accelerator with NEC RC 43 end station and nuclear microprobe.
Amethyst Wafer Mapping (AWM)
An Amethyst patented defect characterization technique, which involves the use of hydrogen (or more specifically deuterium), which diffuses rapidly within the semiconductor lattice and is trapped at defects. The trapping of hydrogen generally occurs as a result of chemical binding to dangling bonds associated with defects such that the profile of hydrogen yields a rather faithful representation of the distribution of lattice disorder in semiconductors. AWM is a conflation of two processes: (1) deuterium (D or 2H) decoration of structural defects in semiconductors to map their density and distribution, and (2) nuclear reaction analysis (NRA) for deuterium detection. Typical applications are 2-D mapping of structural defects in semiconductors. It can be readily deployed in IRFPA manufacturing for material assessment, process characterization, and failure analysis.
Micro-Raman Spectroscopy (µ-Raman)
During the inelastic interaction between light and a molecule the polarizability of the molecule changes which shifts the oscillation frequency from that of the input field, and the shifted oscillation act as a source of secondary radiation, which is observed by Raman spectroscopy. Chemical bonds and thin film composition and strains are analyzed by Raman spectroscopy. 2-D impurities mapping are also possible with Raman microscopy.
Fourier-transform infrared spectroscopy (FTIR)
Sub-band transitions and band bending, and associated changes in the electrical properties of semiconductors can be characterized by the absorption IR spectroscopy. A beam of IR is transmitted through the sample (or reflected off the sample) and the resonant inter-atomic bond energies are absorbed, which are detected by interferometer. Absorbed energies are the signature of chemical bond preset in the sample.
Amethyst is equiped with a Nicolet 6700 Analytical FTIR with following specification: